Conclusions and Practical Recommendations

I. Nowadays such complex indicators as life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy go beyond the traditional measures of the demographic potential of a country.
Longevity progressiveness is important for driving economic progress and competitiveness—both for developed and developing economies. Many governments are putting policies on longevity at the center of their growth strategies and budget planning. The definition of longevity has broadened—it is no longer quantitative increase in life expectancy at birth. Today longevity is about social inclusiveness, high quality of life, technical innovations in care delivery and medical treatment, and modified business and governmental models.
II. The prevalence of NCDs are considered to be a “slow motion disaster” and rising challenge for life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy dynamics.
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioral factors. Such diseases have common metabolic roots. They are the major reason of the increasing risk of premature death and result in more disability years in older age.
III.  All risk factors of NCDs lie in non-health sectors, requiring collaboration across all of government and all of society to combat them.
Noncommunicable diseases are driven by forces that include unplanned urbanization, globalization of unhealthy lifestyles and population aging. Unhealthy diets and a lack of physical activity may show up in people as raised blood pressure, increased blood glucose, overweight and obesity. These are called metabolic risk factors that can lead to cardiovascular disease, the leading NCD in terms of premature deaths.
IV. Healthy Longevity progressiveness is about the public-private balance in health care system.
It is important for longevity governance find effective combination of universal health coverage system, support from citizens and the private sector.
V. Low socioeconomic inequality and reduced disparity in health outcomes should be key goals in Healthy Longevity plans and healthcare policies.
Research shows that people living in more affluent areas live significantly longer than people living in deprived areas. Socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy are also widening in both sexes as a result of greater gains in life expectancy in less deprived populations. Many health outcomes — everything from life expectancy to infant mortality and obesity — can be linked to the level of economic inequality within a given population. Greater economic inequality appears to lead to worse health outcomes.
VI. Healthcare policies should be focused on the care delivery to improve healthcare outcomes and provide higher efficiency of healthcare expenditure.
Nowadays it is unclear why countries are investing so much money in research focused on reducing death rates in the elderly, if the consequence is advancing ageing, that can be described as the increase in disability years, plus pension, and social and medical costs, in an unsustainable way. The policy should be focused on health status for measuring efficiency ratio of healthcare system.
VII. A focus on national-level health status and its temporal trajectory is critical.
Health status is one of the most important indicators of well-being, and it predicts a large proportion of societal expenditures on health and social services for the elderly. It depends on individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, general socioeconomic. Health status is also reciprocally affected by social and political policies and programs.
VIII. Corruption in healthcare is a barrier for improvements of care delivery and indirectly affects the slowdown of both life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy growth.
Corruption significantly weakens overall health system performance, and has been found by multiple studies to have a significant negative impact on important health outcomes. Corruption is a major reason of high administrative costs and wasteful healthcare expenditures in clinical care, operational activities and governance. It results in long waiting periods, unmet needs of population and high level of satisfaction of healthcare system performance in general.
IX. There is an evident linkage between level of income and health status: wealthier nation healthier population.
Healthcare performance is strongly dependent on the economy, but also on the health systems themselves. Investment in health is not only a desirable, but also an essential priority for most societies. Health status depends on the development of healthcare infrastructure, medical facilities, high qualification of medical staff, provision of healthcare coverage and competition in private insurance sector. All four pillars of Healthy Longevity Progressiveness, accessibility, affordability, health outcomes and spendings, depends on economic conditions, successful provision of reforms. However, health systems face tough and complex challenges, in part derived from new pressures, such as ageing populations, growing prevalence of chronic illnesses, and intensive use of expensive yet vital health technologies.

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X. Utilisation of Artificial Intelligence opportunities in preventive medicine to minimise costs and improve accessibility of healthcare services.
AI has great potential in terms of tackling the problem of bureaucracy and inefficient administration, relieving doctors from time-consuming administrative tasks and giving them more time to spend with their patients. By automating and improving processes, artificial intelligence can benefit both patients and medical staff. By optimising patient processing planning it can reduce the waiting time and length of stay for patients, and it can also help medical staff in their day-to-day work.
XI. Polluted environment and unfavorable climate conditions threaten average life span and health-adjusted life expectancy.
Countries are currently experiencing unusual environmental issues which provide serious health risks to people. Many developing countries lack the skill, technology and resources to handle climate change related problems like the developed countries. Hence, the outcome of the present research can aid in taking proactive measures which will put in check diurnal temperature variation, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity for Healthy Longevity increasing.

Countries with Low HALE and Life Expectancy and High Gap:


United States
In death ratio some improvements are observed owing to declining death rates from the three leading causes of death in the country -- heart disease, cancer and stroke. But in recent years, in United States costs of healthcare provision have started to rise much more quickly with greater use of modern technological medicine. While spending is highest, the United States ranks not in the top in the world for its levels of health care. So, first of all, in order to improve HALE government should improve health insurance for poor population as there is big income inequality and reduce high administrative costs for cost efficiency. The government should focus on medical advances, some improvements in lifestyle, and screening and diagnosis.
Estonia shows the trend of increase in HALE. Estonia implements e-health solutions but digital tools should not increase existing health inequalities. Rather, they should increase equity. One way to do this is to use health data for policy making.
The health system is one of the most complex systems with many variables and uncertainties. The management of this system needs trained managers. One of the current shortcomings is lack of those specifically trained for this purpose. There is all high income inequality in the country. Government should improve access in healthcare coverage for the families with a low income.
Turkey faces a health care system inefficiencies. Infant mortality rate is relatively high and not all population had health insurance, resulting in unequal healthcare access among different population groups. It is need to improve access for high-quality healthcare services and target the main causes of death through government initiatives.
United Arab Emirates
As residents have high HALE than non-residents in the country it is needed to enhance the health of individuals a through the provision of comprehensive health services for both residents and non-residents in order to decrease gap between levels of HALE, through implementing policies, legislations, programs and effective partnerships.

Countries with Low HALE and Life Expectancy and Medium Gap: