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Longevity Governance

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Introduction & Big Data Comparative Analysis Framework

Life expectancy is increasing all around the world. While there have been obvious fluctuations in the dynamics of this statistically measured demographic indicator, life expectancy at birth overall has been steadily increasing for many years. It has more than doubled in the last two centuries.

 

This increase was previously driven by reductions in infant mortality. But since around the 1950s, the main factor of steady increase has been reductions in mortality at older ages. This has contributed to the ageing of the population and critical changes in age distribution, which can be described with old-age dependency ratio.

 

The major problem with merely increasing life expectancy is that it also increases morbidity because people live long enough to get more age-related disease, disability, dementia, and dysfunction. Many serious diseases have increased prevalence with age, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, kidney disease, dementia, arthritis, and osteoporosis.

 

Consequently, it is unclear why countries are investing so much money in research focused on reducing death rates in the elderly, if the consequence is advancing ageing, that can be described as the increase in disability years, plus pension, and social and medical costs, in an unsustainable way.

 

Ageing is caused by many different processes, that is why healthy longevity goes far beyond demographic characteristics and medical research problems on how to increase the quantity of life.

 

This paper seeks to identify which health system characteristics, socio-economic factors, and environmental conditions are likely to increase health-adjusted life expectancy and improve the quality of life.

 

The analysis is based on the +200 parameters that define healthy longevity across the chosen 50 countries.

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200+ Analysed Parameters per country

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The Framework of Healthy Longevity

Today’s increased global Longevity is a “problem of success”, an inevitable consequence of sharp increases in sanitation, diet, health care, elderly care, and geriatric medicine, a set of changes which have occurred suddenly within the lifetimes of today’s elderly. But this increased Longevity is not a consequence of decreased aging; this life extension is not accompanied by a commensurate extension in health. As a result, increased global Longevity is producing a global aging demographic, an impending crisis frequently referred to as the “silver tsunami”.

 

In order to float rather than sink, Longevity must become an asset. And this means altering the nature of aging entirely, reducing the period of financially and socially inactive decrepitude at the end of life. Specifically, it means utilizing technology to ensure that these longer lives are also healthy, productive, financially active lives, and creating a system of government frameworks and financial incentives to create and sustain this case of affairs.

 

In the methodology, we have identified several metrics that most correlate with healthy longevity. Among those metrics are HALE, Life Expectancy, DALY rates, Healthcare Efficiency Index, Current Health Expenditure per Capita, Gross domestic expenditure on R&D and a few others. Those metrics received higher weight and categories in which they are allocated represent higher importance to final evaluation.​

Chosen metrics can be estimated at international, national or local levels to:

  • Compare population health across communities and over time;

  • Provide a full picture of which diseases, injuries, and risk factors contribute the most to poor health in a specific population;

  • Highlight the state's contribution to development and maintenance of healthy longevity;

  • Measures of HALE are normally presented by age, sex and geographical region;

  • Compare countries in order to share the knowledge and experience regarding healthy longevity.

Application of Metrics

Research on healthy ageing encompasses: the biological processes contributing to ageing per se; the socio-economic and environmental exposures across life which modulate ageing and the risk of age-related frailty, disability and disease; and the development of interventions which may modulate the ageing trajectory.

 

Such research needs measures of health span which, in addition to chronological age, can characterise and quantify important functions which are subject to decline at faster, or slower, rates during individual human ageing. Furthermore, it is impossible to determine whether biotechnologies for aging have been successful if we cannot tell how advanced the aging process is in any given individual.

The role of government strategy is of immediate importance in advancing the Longevity industry from its present point, and governments must be able to monitor and describe biomedical progress. Metrics for tangible progress are absolutely essential component of any government strategic agenda. It will be impossible to make concrete claims regarding global progress in biotechnology - and in preventive medicine in particular - without an agreed set of metrics.

Goals of the Methodology 

This methodology answers the following questions:
  • What specific features of healthcare systems, socio-economic conditions, environmental factors affect public health?

  • How does the impact of factors differ across countries?

  • What constellation of factors contributes the most to healthy longevity?

  • Which factors are the main drivers of disability adjusted years?

  • What countries are leaders in longevity governance?

  • What can be done to improve HALE, Life Expectancy and other correlated metrics in each country globally?

Longevity Progressiveness Methodology is an analytical tool that focuses on 50 countries. The goal is to evaluate the current state of longevity and related initiatives among analyzed countries, find and determine strengths and weaknesses of the healthcare system in terms of the rising trend of longevity.

 

Nowadays such complex indicators as life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy goes beyond the traditional measures of demographic potential of a particular countries, major causes of death, and probabilities of premature death (based on life tables).

Methodology Description

The tool was created for comparing the level of development of the country's current longevity state, longevity policies and initiatives among other analyzed countries. Quantitative data analysis in this methodology includes more than  7 000 numerical values to indicate Longevity. Therefore, the five step approach was used to conduct this systematic search:

 

  1. Providing research for absolute values.

  2. Values comparison evaluation.</