Longevity Governance

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Current Trends in Life Expectancy and Healthy Longevity

Developed countries have higher life expectancy comparing to developing countries. Life expectancy at birth in countries varies significantly. Dut the differences among high-income countries differences in life expectancy have narrowed over time. The highest value is in Japan and the lowest value is in South Africa, they equal 84.2 and 63.6 years accordingly. The United States is the high-income country where life expectancy is marginally low the average level of chosen countries (72.3 years).

Difference between Female and Male Life Expectancy at birth

Female life expectancy exceeds male life expectancy in all countries. In 2019 in the United States male life expectancy was 76.3 years for males and 81.4 years for females, a difference of 5 years, whereas in France it was 5.6 years and in the United Kingdom., 3.5 years. The discrepancy was much greater in some countries, with the difference in Russia reaching more than 10.8 years, but in others, such as India 2.9 or United Arab Emirates (2.2 years) it was much less. The female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small, but it grew substantially over the last century. These two points also apply to the other countries with available data, Sweden, France and the UK.
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Indicators Dynamics: of Life Expectancy at birth

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High-income European countries and countries beyond Europe, Canada and Australia experienced a slowdown in life expectancy improvements in recent years. The slowdown in improvement since 2011 has been greatest in the USA, where life expectancy improvements have not just slowed but have reversed in the most recent years. The exception is Japan which experienced increase in life expectancy. Advancing in expectancy improvements is observed in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy at birth

Developed countries have higher health-adjusted life expectancy compared to developing countries. HALE at birth in countries varies significantly. The highest value is in Japan and the lowest value is in South Africa, they equal 74.1 and 56.2 years respectively. The United States is a high-income country where life expectancy is marginally lower than the average level of chosen countries (70 years). Poland has the lowest HALE among European Union countries presented in the report.

Difference between Female and Male HALE at birth

The highest difference between female and male health-adjusted life expectancy among chosen countries is in Russian Federation and it equals 6.8 years. Among high-income countries the highest difference is in Japan. Women tend to engage in fewer behaviors that are bad for health than men do. They also better profit from current advances in health care and living conditions.

Indicators Dynamics: HALE at birth

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Two Opposite Trends in the United States: Surge in Healthcare Expenditure and Slowdown in Life Expectancy

The US currently has a significant gap between its healthy-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) of 66 years and life expectancy at birth of 78 years, compared to a gap of 9 years in Singapore (74 years and 83 years, respectively). Its life expectancy at birth ranks 29th globally, yet its health care expenditures are the highest among all developed countries.
 
The situation in the US does not stem from the developed state of its science, technology or medicine. Rather, it is rooted in policy. This report seeks to analyze specific policy initiatives that can enable the US to turn its health deficit around.
 
In the United States, there has been a rapid increase of total national health expenditure (millions $) over time. In 2019, this figure reached an enormous value of almost 3.8 trillion dollars. There is a trend of further expenditure increase in this field.

 Despite the increasing total national health expenditure, there is an opposite trend in life expectancy at birth (years). The amount of decrease in life expectancy is less alarming than the fact that addiction and a decline in the emotional wellbeing of Americans have contributed significantly to the decrease of the average length of life in the United States.
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Life Expectancy Slowdown in the United States

In the United States, the average life expectancy is 84.1 years and the average HALE is 78.9 years. Women live 2.6 years longer than men (85.3 to 82.7 years), on average, and enjoy good health for almost two years longer (79.8 to 77.9 years).

​In 2020, life expectancy at age 60 years for the United States of America was 23.59 years. Life expectancy at age 60 years in the United States of America increased from 18.7 years in 1975 to 23.59 years in 2020 growing at an average annual rate of 2.62%.

Before the recent 3 years decline, life expectancy had been steadily rising in the US — which is to be expected of an advanced nation, particularly one that spends more money per citizen on health care than any other country. But high health care expenditure does not indicate better health care coverage and improved care delivery system. Health care in the US is about twice as expensive as it is in any other developed country. The cost of this financial burden for every household because of lost wages, higher premiums, taxes and additional out-of-pocket expenses is huge.

 Even with all this money being spent on health care, the World Health Organization ranked the US 37th in health care systems, and The Commonwealth Fund placed the US last among the top 11 industrialized countries in overall health care.
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United States: Life Expectancy (LE), Causes of Death & 144 Disability, Risk Factors – Global Comparison